Dockside articulated loading arms are used to load and unload bulk supplies of liquid natural gas. The time taken for this operation is significantly affected by the maximum rate at which loading equipment can be cooled due to thermal stress limitations.
A suitable maximum cooling rate can be determined by the use of a transient thermal stress model. Such modelling can predict flow and heat transfer rates, temperature distribution in the loading arm, and the consequent thermal stresses produced. A safe cooling regime, minimum cooling time, and useful loading arm modifications can be identified.